- 小麥種籽 Wheat Germs 100 g (肥丁用斯佩耳特小麥 Spelt)
- 有機圓糯米 Glutinous Rice 500 g
- 清水 Water 2 L (煮糯米飯)
- 小麥種籽冷水浸泡 8 小時，瀝乾，放入豆芽罐內發芽。沒有豆芽罐，可放入有孔的塑膠網篩，上壓重物，蓋上黑布並放入廚櫃內蔗光發芽。香港天氣相對潮濕，用網篩的方法比較容易發霉發臭。肥丁從淘寶買了發豆芽專用的豆芽罐，早晚澆水一次，發芽很容易
- 麥芽長到約 4 ~ 5 cm 的長度，這種長度的麥芽，澱粉酶含量最豐富。收成，用剪刀剪碎，用攪拌機打碎效果更好。發芽的速度視乎室溫，夏天約 2 ~ 3 天。冬天約 4 ~ 6 天不等
- 糯米飯煮熟後，攪拌降溫至約 40ºC，加入麥芽攪拌均勻。糯米飯的溫度不宜太高，否則麥芽裡的酵素容易被高溫破壞。肥丁用白珐瑯鐵鑄鍋煮糯米飯。飯熟後降溫，直接加入麥芽，發酵約 4小時 ( 室溫 19ºC )。如用電飯煲煮飯，直接用電飯煲的鍋來發酵都可以，不過大部份電鍋有化學不沾塗層，肥丁不敢用來發酵。發酵溫度最好保持在約 35ºC ～ 40ºC。溫度太低會變酸，過熱會發臭
- 糯米在發酵後澱粉質被轉化為分子小的醣類，米粒變成空心不再飽滿，看上去破破爛爛的，代表其中的澱粉已完全水解，鍋裡出現很多水份，淺嚐一下， 有淡淡的麥香和甜味，發酵成功
- 把糯米舀入綿布袋中過濾，用手擠壓榨出米色的糖水，這動作要花點力氣， 太約取得 850 ml 的糖水
- 糖水加熱濃縮水份，一開始稀稀的可用大火，熬煮約 20 分鐘，隨著水份蒸發，由小泡沫變成大泡沫，就要調至小火，邊攪拌邊熬煮約 10 分鐘，糖水會變得愈來愈濃稠，變成糖膠，黏著勺子不容易滑落，離火，麥芽糖就煮好了
A pair of chopsticks covered in maltose is used to pick up two pieces of soda crackers. After taking a light bite, the crispy crackers and soft, fragrant maltose create an unexpectedly delicious combination. The smooth and sweet maltose permeates between the lips and teeth, leaving a sweet and memorable taste in the childhood memories of the writer.
Maltose has an even earlier origin than cane sugar, and is one of the oldest types of sugar known to human beings. In China, it is believed that the production of maltose began in the Shang dynasty and was known as ‘yí’「飴」. The ‘Shuowen Jiezi‘《說文解字》 records that ‘yí is made from malt and rice, and is boiled down’
If the definition of fermentation is “the process of organic matter decomposition through the action of microorganisms or enzymes,” then maltose made through traditional methods can also be considered a fermented food. Wheat and glutinous rice are used as raw materials, and wheat enzymes release the starch in glutinous rice, which is then boiled down to a thick paste.
Maltose is a low-sweetness starch sugar that dissolves in water and converts to glucose. Its sweetness is only about 40% of cane sugar, and it has low calories and is easily digestible. Replacing cane sugar as a baking ingredient can reduce the cloying sweetness of the finished product. When cooking dishes such as braised pork knuckles, grilled meat slices, and stir-fried vegetables, the enzymes in maltose can also soften the meat and enhance the taste of the dish, while reducing the use of other seasonings. Maltose also has therapeutic effects. Traditional Chinese medicine believes that maltose is warm and sweet, and has the effects of nourishing beauty, strengthening the spleen and qi, and moistening the lungs and stopping cough.
The soft and fragrant candy filling in Taiwanese souvenir sun cakes is made from maltose. Maltose syrup is mixed and repeatedly stretched with force to incorporate air, and then solidifies to form silver-white sugar cubes. When these cubes are mixed with more air and compressed, they become the porous yellow-white hard candy cake that is commonly known as “ding dang candy.”
Some manufacturers may use unknown or inferior quality starch, such as tapioca starch instead of glutinous rice, and add cane sugar to produce a golden color and reduce costs when mass producing low-priced maltose syrup. Some even use all-chemical ingredients, resulting in a significant reduction in nutritional value and quality.
Spring is the season when all kinds of plants sprout, and I learned the most primitive ancient method of making maltose syrup, starting from sprouting wheat naturally through fermentation, without adding any cane sugar. Even at home, he can produce naturally sweet maltose syrup with excellent viscosity, softness, and sweetness that does not stick to teeth and melts in the mouth. Compared with professional ancient methods, there is still plenty of room for improvement, but the taste is much better than that of commercially available instant maltose syrup.
Traditional maltose syrup changes its viscosity with temperature. When the room temperature is high, it is somewhat similar to the viscosity of oyster sauce, and it can be easily scooped with chopsticks. When the room temperature is low, it takes a little more effort. The maltose syrup sold in the market, which contains tapioca starch, has a hard texture and is very sticky throughout the year, making it difficult to scoop, and it also tends to stick to teeth when eaten.
- 100g Wheat Germs or Spelt
- 500g Organic Glutinous Rice
- 2L Water ( For Rice Cooking )
1. After soaking the wheat germs in cold water for 8 hours and draining, put them in a bean sprout jar to germinate. If you don’t have a bean sprout jar, you can use a perforated plastic sieve, press a weight on top, cover it with black cloth, and place it in a dark cabinet to sprout. As the weather in Hong Kong is relatively humid, using a sieve is more likely to cause mold and odor. I bought a bean sprout jar specifically for sprouting from Taobao, and watering it once in the morning and evening makes it easy to sprout.
2.When the malt grows to a length of about 4-5 cm, it contains the highest amount of amylase enzymes. After harvesting, it is best to cut the malt with scissors and then crush it with a blender for better results. The speed of germination depends on the room temperature, taking about 2-3 days in summer and 4-6 days in winter.
3. One day before harvesting the malt, soak glutinous rice in advance. Use more water than usual to cook the glutinous rice, and cook it until it is slightly overcooked, which makes it easier to ferment.
4. After cooking the glutinous rice, stir and cool it down to about 40ºC, then add the malt and mix well. The temperature of the glutinous rice should not be too high, otherwise, the enzymes in the malt can be easily destroyed by high temperatures. I used a white enamel cast iron pot to cook the glutinous rice. After the rice is cooked and cooled, the malt is added directly, and the fermentation takes about 4 hours (at room temperature of 19ºC). If using an electric rice cooker to cook the rice, the pot of the rice cooker can be used directly for fermentation. However, most rice cookers have a chemical non-stick coating, which I don’t dare to use for fermentation. The fermentation temperature should be maintained at about 35ºC to 40ºC. If the temperature is too low, it will turn sour, and if it is too high, it will produce a bad odor.
5. After fermentation, the starch in the glutinous rice is converted into smaller sugar molecules, and the rice grains become hollow and no longer plump. They may look a bit broken and fragmented, indicating that the starch has been completely hydrolyzed. There will be a lot of moisture in the pot, and when tasted, there will be a slight wheat aroma and sweetness, which means the fermentation is successful
6. Scoop the glutinous rice into a cheese clothes and filter it. Use your hands to squeeze and press to extract the rice-colored syrup. This action requires some effort, and about 850 ml of syrup can be obtained.
7. Heat and concentrate the syrup by boiling it. At the beginning, use high heat to boil for about 20 minutes. As the water evaporates, the small bubbles will turn into big bubbles. Then, reduce the heat to low and stir while boiling for about 10 minutes. The syrup will become thicker and turn into a sticky gel-like consistency that clings to the spoon and is not easily slipped off. Once this happens, remove the pot from the heat, and the maltose syrup is ready.
8. Pour the maltose syrup into sterilized glass jars, and it will harden slightly as it cools down. Store at room temperature and it can be kept for about six months.
- When heating maltose syrup, its texture will become soft, and it will become harder and more viscous after cooling down.
- The hardness of maltose syrup is related to the temperature of the syrup. The longer it is boiled, the darker the color and the harder it becomes after cooling.
- There is still some sugar left in the glutinous rice residue, which can be used for making wine.
- When cooking glutinous rice, it is recommended to use a cast iron pot. First, drain the glutinous rice and put it in the pot. Stir-fry it over low heat until it starts to stick to the pot, ensuring that each grain of glutinous rice is heated evenly. Then, add warm water and bring it to a boil. Cover the pot, reduce the heat to low, and cook for about 15 minutes. Turn off the heat and let it steam for 15 minutes.
The original article was published in the “Ming Pao” newspaper’s daily column on home-cooked meals on February 27, 2016.
小麥種籽 Wheat Germs 100 g
有機圓糯米 Glutinous Rice 500 g
清水 Water 2 L
小麥種籽冷水浸泡 8 小時，瀝乾，放入豆芽罐內發芽。沒有豆芽罐，可放入有孔的塑膠網篩，上壓重物，蓋上黑布並放入廚櫃內蔗光發芽。香港天氣相對潮濕，用網篩的方法比較容易發霉發臭。肥丁從淘寶買了發豆芽專用的豆芽罐，早晚澆水一次，發芽很容易
麥芽長到約 4 ~ 5 cm 的長度，這種長度的麥芽，澱粉酶含量最豐富。收成，用剪刀剪碎，用攪拌機打碎效果更好。發芽的速度視乎室溫，夏天約 2 ~ 3 天。冬天約 4 ~ 6 天不等
糯米飯煮熟後，攪拌降溫至約 40ºC，加入麥芽攪拌均勻。糯米飯的溫度不宜太高，否則麥芽裡的酵素容易被高溫破壞。肥丁用白珐瑯鐵鑄鍋煮糯米飯。飯熟後降溫，直接加入麥芽，發酵約 4小時 ( 室溫 19ºC )。如用電飯煲煮飯，直接用電飯煲的鍋來發酵都可以，不過大部份電鍋有化學不沾塗層，肥丁不敢用來發酵。發酵溫度最好保持在約 35ºC ～ 40ºC。溫度太低會變酸，過熱會發臭
把糯米舀入綿布袋中過濾，用手擠壓榨出米色的糖水，這動作要花點力氣， 太約取得 850 ml 的糖水
糖水加熱濃縮水份，一開始稀稀的可用大火，熬煮約 20 分鐘，隨著水份蒸發，由小泡沫變成大泡沫，就要調至小火，邊攪拌邊熬煮約 10 分鐘，糖水會變得愈來愈濃稠，變成糖膠，黏著勺子不容易滑落，離火，麥芽糖就煮好了